Pakistani women in Physics

Asghari Maqsood

Thermal Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics,

Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Pakistan stands at the crossroads of the world where the cultures of Middle East and Asia meet and become one. The population is about 140 Million. There are four main provinces as: Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan. It is a beautiful country having four seasons. There are five big rivers. Mountains like Nagaperbat (8,125 meters) and K-2 (8,610 meters) high, is Pakistan's highest mountain and second highest in the world. It stands on the border between Pakistan and China.

Sex Ratio in Pakistan is 1.05 Male(s)/Female

Literacy: (Definition: age 15 and above can read and write)

Total Population: 37.8%

Male: 50%

Female: 24.4%

Languages: Urdu (National Language), Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto 8%, Balochi 3%, English (Official)


The educational setup in cities and villages is different. In cities the schools run according to the modern methods. Girls are not normally encouraged for higher education, instead they do the domestic jobs.

I shall mention the Postgraduate Physics degree awarding institutes.

Federal Capital: Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

Punjab: Agriculture University Faisalabad.

Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.

Islamia University, Bahawalpur.

Punjab University, Lahore

University of Engineering & technology Lahore

Government College, Lahore

Government College, Jhang.

Government College Satellite Town, Rawalpindi.

Government College, Chakwal.

Government Science College, Faisalabad.

Government Superior College, Lahore.

Dar-ul-Islam College, Rabwah.

Government College, Sahiwal.

Government College Boson Road, Multan.

Sindh: Karachi University, Karachi.

Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur.

Sindh University, Jamshoro.

NWFP: Gomal University D.I.Khan.

Peshawar University, Peshawar.

Balochistan: Balochistan University of Engineering

& Technology, Khuzdar.

University of Balochistan, Quetta.

A. Jammu & Kashmir: University of AJ&k Muzaffarabad.

Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Federal Capital of Pakistan)


M. Sc.

Male Female %Female

440 91 17

M. Phil.

316 48 13

Ph. D.

56 13 19

(Theory 11) 85

(Experimental 2) 15

After getting Degree, where to go ?

Number of women working in different universities

University No. Designation Degree

Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 4 Professors (2) Ph. D

Asst. Professor (2) Ph. D

Karachi University, Karachi 3 Associate Prof. (1) Ph. D

Asst. Professor(2) Ph. D

B. Z. University, Multan 2 Lecturer M. Phil

Center for Solid State Physics, Lahore 1 Professor Ph. D

Peshawar University, Peshawar 1 Lecturer M. Phil

Why female students do not adopt physics

Due to following factors girls do not adopt physics

1) Early marriages of females----------------Females are not allowed to study after marriage-----------------------They get involved in the domestic jobs ------------so no question of higher education------------------and every body knows that physics is rather difficult subject---------------.

2) Physics requires discussion and interaction--------------------normally females do not get chance to improve the subject

3) Parents suggest their daughters to adopt either medical profession or teaching at school / college level so they are forced to opt pre-medical group in F. Sc and with this combination they are ineligible to take physics in B. Sc.

4) Those girls who study physics in B. Sc they prefer to take admission in Business administration, Information Technology and Computer Sciences because these are well paid profession in future for them as compared to do M. Sc in Physics.

5) As physics is a technical and conceptual subject so it is thought to be tough to study as compared to Maths, Biology, Statistics etc. So girls prefer to do M. Sc in other science subjects.

6) Most of the physics teachers do not bother to teach conceptual physics in matric and F. Sc in an interesting way because matric and F. Sc. Make the basis of the students. So physics teachers eliminate the interest of students in physics and students do not want to continue study in physics in future.

7) Normally teachers do not take interest in problem solving techniques

With all these problems if a woman gets a chance then she can flourished.

Thermal Physics Laboratory

Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University,

Islamabad, Pakistan


Fax No.: +92-51-9210256

Phone No.: +92-51-2828187

Group leader: Prof. Dr. Asghari Maqsood

Established: 14th April, 1984

M. Phil.

Male Female %Female

45 06 12

Ph. D.

Male Female

03 -

Research Publications in International Journals --------------------- 100

Two papers appeared on the cover page of the international journals.