PROF. DR. -ANTONETA DEDA, -
UNIVERSITY OF TIRANA
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
DR. -PRANVERA BEKTESHI
INSTITUTE OF HIDROMETEREOLOGY
ALBANIAN WOMEN DIFFICULTIES IN
THEIR AFFIRMATION IN PHYSICS
The career progression of the Albanian women physicists has been a very warring and
hard process taking into consideration the economical, political and social conditions
under which Albania has been undergoing for the last sixty years.
Albania is one of the Eastern European countries, which has suffered the most savage
communist dictatorship in Europe. This dictatorship isolated our country for fifty years
from all the economical and social progressive countries of the world. The isolation
affected a lot not only the economical development of our country, but also the people's
thinking and mentality.
Among the striking difficulties we may mention:
1. The parents' mentality, which hesitate to send their daughters to school to set for
2. The men's patriarchal thinking, who do not wont their wives to do career.
3. Hardship that come about from marriages such as: being involved in science or at
work is time-consuming, whereas house work and children's education is prior to
4. The low level of the laboratories at school, at the universities and at the research
centres, which hardens the physicist's job, especially the women's physicists' job
that have family commitments.
Under these conditions a genuine scientific work in Physics has been very difficult even
for men, and not only for women. Nevertheless the Albanian people as, a European
people, has been and always is longing for education and development. So, despite the
hardships, a small number of women had the possibility to do more or less a successful
career in Physics.
The Albanian women physicists, with their scientific research have given their contribution
in some fields such as: The study on minerals, which are very important in the Albanian
economy with respect to the high content in our mountains of Copper, Aluminium,
Iron etc. This study is carried out according to radioactive methods, electronic
microscope, X-ray, etc.
In the last years, after the establishment of democracy in Albania, more work has been
done in improving and increasing the participation of women in Physics, especially in
offering the opportunities to joint contribution with other universities abroad. Some
women have collaborated with some universities, mainly European ones, in different
fields. We are mentioning some of them:
§ The white dwarf in our galaxy and the dark matter.
§ Refining the grain size of metallic alloys by Equal Channel Angular Pressing
§ Photosinteticaly active radiation over Western lowland of Albania.
§ The study of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the new glycosylated
posphyrins and their application at the photodynamic therapy of cancer cells.
§ The study of ro-vibrational spectra of HCNO molecule by mean of FTIR
§ The X Diffractometric and microscopic* study of crystalline structure and phase
analysis of argil of Prrenjas. (* and other physical complementary methods).
§ Complex fields and Bason Stars, etc.
* The physics of environment
It has recently been done the reorganization of curricula in Physics at the Tirana
University. The new curriculum is oriented under three directions:
1. The Physics of condensed matter.
2. Biophysics and the Environmental Physics.
3. Theoretical Physics.
For this reason, a project has been approved by the European Community, which will
obviously improve the level of laboratory equipment, the level of scientific personnel as
well as the laboratory technicians. Therefore, it is thought to attract more girls in the
Physics branch, especially in the direction of Biophysics and the Physics of Environment,
which is much preferred and accepted by them.
A greater work is thought to be done in future with the help of N.G.O.-es which, are
recently founded in Albania. Having much more money at their disposal than Albanian
Government, they will give their contribution in accepting with priority the projects on
Physics, in order to raise teaching and research level.